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The activities of the Directorate include
1. Collection of Agriculture Statistics on regular basis and published year wise
2. Agricultural Census on quinquinnal basis - Latest year of reference 2000-01
3. Cost of Cultivation of Important Crops - Annually
4. Economic Census - Latest year of reference 2005
5. Annual Survey of Industries
6. Index of Industrial Productions
7. Housing Statistics
8. Labour Statistics
9. Vital statistics - Civil Registration System
a) Data under Birth & Death Registration Act
b) Medical Certification of causes of Death
c) Spot check survey
10. Sample Registration
11. Wage Structure Survey
12. Prices Statistics
a) Computation of Consumer Price Index Numbers for industrial workers and Agricultural labourers.Base year 1970=100
b) Parity Index Numbers
c) Whole sale price Index Numbers
d) Prices of essential commodities
e) Dietary prices
f) Wholesale price for Market intelligence
13. National Sample Survey - Annual survey of N S S
14. State Income - computed sector wise - Annually
15. Evaluation Studies
16. Planning Co-ordination and Publication of Statistics
17. Surveys & Studies - Ad-hoc surveys of current interest (Non Profit Institution Survey - Sponserd by CSO)
DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS & STATISTICS
Detailed Note on Major Divisions of Directorate of Economics & Statistics and Their Work
ESTABLISHMENT OF AN AGENCY FOR REPORTING AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS (EARAS)
Economics and Statistics department is the State Agricultural Statistical Authority. Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operation, Government of India has been implementing the scheme Improvement of Agriculture Statistics for the collection of Agriculture Statistics in the states/ union territories. Agricultural Statistics in Kerala was collected through Land Utilization Surveys conducted every year by the Department of Economics and Statistics till 1975-76. The area, production and yield rate of various agricultural crops and data on Land Utilization, etc. were estimated on the basis of data collected through annual Land Utilisation Survey. But the estimates prepared at Taluk/District level were not in good precision on account of the small sample size, quality and coverage. At this juncture Government of India sponsored a scheme Establishment of an Agency for Reporting Agricultural Statistics (EARAS) as a variant of the Timely Reporting Survey (TRS) implemented in the Reporting States. Kerala, West Bengal and Orissa are permanently settled states, as well as non reporting states where the scheme EARAS was introduced as a variant of TRS to suit the collection of Agricultural Statistics from 1975-76 onwards. At present, the scheme Establishment of an Agency for Reporting Agricultural Statistics is a 100% Central Sector Scheme. The objective of the implementation of this scheme is to collect
Land Use Statistics - Land Utilization Pattern (13 way classification)
Area Statistics - Area of crops, Irrigation Particulars of crops
Production Statistics - Production and Productivity of crops
As a regular scheme, Government of India is issuing Administrative Approval for the implementation of the scheme in the state during the beginning period of each financial year. Accordingly Government of India has issued administrative sanction for the implementation of the scheme in the state for the year 2010-11.Apart from conducting the regular sample surveys under the EARAS scheme viz Area enumeration survey and General crop estimation Survey
This is a 100% centrally sponsored scheme. The main objectives of agricultural census are
i). to arrive at a distribution of operational holdings by size class and to assess the incidence of various tenure systems.
ii). to study the pattern of land use and the area under different crops
iii). to study the agriculture practices and inputs used in cultivation, specifically to estimate the quantity and type of fertilizers and manure used, extent of irrigated area along with the sources of irrigation.
Agricultural Census is carried out on All India basis once in 5 years since 1970-71. In all the states except Kerala, West Bengal and Orissa (Non-land record States) the agricultural census envisages re-tabulation of the data available on the land records. The methods of sample census is adopted in the above mentioned 3 States.
The sixth in the series is the present one with base year 1995-96. The main census with objectives (i) and (ii) have already been completed and the data has been given to Government of India. A quick Tabulation Report has been brought out. The tabulation of input survey objectives (iii) is being completed.
COST OF CULTIVATION SURVEY
The scheme for conducting cost of cultivation survey was initiated in 1979-80.
The survey intends to find out the cost of cultivation of the major crops and few minor crops covered in EARAS. This survey is spread out in 38 Taluks. From the Taluks zones are selected. Plots are selected from the zones as per the list available from EARAS (that of the previous year). Thus cultivators are also listed from the selected plots.
The data collected from this survey are used for the successful implementation of various schemes in the Agricultural sector, required to draw up realistic plans for the development of various crops, diversification of cropping patterns and maximization of net returns from them. Moreover these data are used by the States and Central Governments to fix floor support prices for agricultural commodities-paddy and coconut.
The growth trend in the agricultural sector has not been consistant in Kerala. Food Crops in general have shown a decreasing trend in area and production. Tne contribution of agriculture to state income has been to the decline. For formulating Proper Price Policies and for achieving economic efficiency of the crop production sector, studies on the Cost of Cultivation of important crops in Kerala is essential. With the ends in view, this department conducts annual study on cost of cultivation of important crops in Kerala.
Economic census is aimed at providing basic information on distribution of non-agricultural enterprises and follow-up surveys for collection of detailed information about the structure of enterprises, investment, input, output, employment, etc. It is a 100% centrally sponsored scheme.
The first countrywide Economic Census was carried out in India in 1977 followed by the second in 1980, third in 1990, the fourth in 1998 and fifth in 2005.
The fifth Economic Census covered agricultural and non-agricultural enterprises in the unorganised sector. The final report of fifth Economic Census is published.Report of Enterprises sector in Kerala (Detailed study relating to fifth Economic Census) is published.
Preliminary work of 6th Economic Census started.
ANNUAL SURVEY OF INDUSTRIES
The Annual Survey of Industries (ASI) is the principal source of data on various aspects of registered establishments classified under manufacturing, electricity, gas & water supply and repair & services. The Field Operations Division (FOD) of National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) carries out the field work of the survey and CSO consolidates the results at national level.The survey covers broadly the following 3 types of units
(1) Units registered under section 2m(i) and 2m(ii) of the Factories Act 1948.
2m(i) Units employing 10 or more workers and using power
2m(ii) Units employing 20 or more workers and not using power.
(2) Electricity undertaking registered with Central Electricity Authority
(3) Beedi and Cigar Establishments which are registered under Beedi & Cigar Workers Act 1966.
The factories included in the survey are grouped into two sectors viz. Census and Sample Sectors.
Census Sector: Units employing 50 or more workers with power and those employing 100 or more workers without power.
Sample Sector: All the other units.
Units coming under census sector are enumerated completely and only a small sample is selected from sample sector.
Hence we are not in a position to have a district wise estimate. CSO has asked this department to do the survey on the residual units also.
INDEX OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION (IIP)
IIP measures the impact of development in the field of industrial sector over a period of time in the state. The Index covers production in the manufacturing and electricity generation sectors in the state.
The indices are calculated quarterly from the year 1975-76 with base 1970 and from the year 1988-89 with the base year 1980-81. The shift of base year to 1993-94 is being done. The data are collected from a sample under the frame of Annual Survey of Industries, on the assumption that this sample contributes the major share of the value added by the manufacturing sector.
A number of labour legislation were enacted for the purpose of providing a healthier, safer and more pleasant environment for workmen and improving their productivity. Among them Factories Act, 1948, Payments of Wages Act, 1936 and Industrial Disputes Act 1967 have a significant role to perform in regulating and controlling the welfare amenities of the factory workers and employers. The data collected under the Labour Legislation excluding the above enactment are supportive for the effective labour administration and provide significant indicators of economic development.
The labour unit of the department continued to engage in the collection, tabulation and analysis of data under the above enactment and the preparation of reports for dissemination. The returns (Annual and Half Yearly) under Factories Act which are statutory in nature are collected from the Factory units registered under Section 2 m(i), Section 2m (ii) and section 85 of the Act. Under the payment of wages Act the factory management are required to furnish the annual returns (From IV) containing the relevant information relating to the workers in the factories earning less than Rs.1600/- p.m. The non-statutory returns (monthly) under Industrial Disputes Act relating to work stoppage, closure, retrenchment etc. Are collected from the establishments where industrial disputes are prevailing. The returns under the Factories Act and Payment of Wages Act are received through the Directorate of Factories and Boilers in this directorate where further processing of the data is done and the tabulated data furnished to the Labour Bureau. The monthly returns under the Industrial Disputes Act are collected through the District Labour Officers/ Chief Inspector of plantations and monthly reports forwarded to the Labour Bureau. Apart from them, other items of work concerning Maternity Benefit Act are also attended to by the Labour Unit.
WAGE STRUCTURE SURVEY
This Department started this survey in the State in 1963-64.
National Sample Survey
The trend in wage rates for different kinds of skilled and unskilled labourers in the construction sector and of the paid employees in the trade and commerce sector has been the subject of the study of the survey.
The Housing Statistics Cell was set up in the Directorate of Economics and Statistics in 1967. It guides and co-ordinates the working of the housing cell functioning in the Public Works Department and in the Directorate of Municipalities, and also collects data directly from the three City Corporations in the State. In addition to this data on prices of building materials and wage rates in the housing construction sector are also collected and published. This information on house construction activities is very useful for the formulation of housing policies.
NATIONAL SAMPLE SURVEY
The National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) was set up in 1950, with the idea of having a permanent survey organization to collect data on various facets of the economy. In order to assist in socio-economic planning and policy making, NSSO conducts nationwide sample surveys known as National Sample Survey (NSS). The NSS is a continuing survey in the sense that it is carried out in the form of successive “rounds”, each round usually of a year's duration covering several topics of current interest. The surveys are conducted through household interviews, using a random sample of households covering practically the entire geographical area of the country.
Participation of State
As the NSS samples were small, the state governments were invited to participate with matching samples so as to enable the preparation of estimates at sub-state level which was not possible with the ‘Central Sample’ alone. Considering the demands for district level estimates, Kerala has been participating in the National Sample Surveys from the very beginning with matching samples to provide more disaggregated results at regional level.Subject Coverage of NSS
The National Sample Survey covers the same topics / subjects at certain regular interval. Of course, the designing of schedule will be modified according to the changed needs. According to the NSSO the long term programme for its coverage is as under:1 Population, births, deaths, disability, morbidity, fertility, maternity and child care
and family planning. - Once in ten years
2. Dept and Investment and capital formation - Once in ten years
3. Land-holdings and livestock enterprises - Once in ten years
4. Employment and employment and Consumer Expenditure - Twice in ten years.
5. Unorganized enterprises in non-agricultural sectors - Twice in ten years.
Source of Data and Methodology
Entire programme of every round of survey is being designed by the NSSO. After pre-test and expertise discussion on the instruction to the field agency and formats of schedules to be canvassed in depth the survey programme of the year is released in its finial shape. The Central and state agencies are doing their field work independently with the samples allotted separately for Centre and State. DES collects the basic data from State sample through its own field investigators. The questionnaires, concepts, definitions etc. used are the same as those of NSSO used in the Central sample.
After completing the field work of each round, the schedules are scrutinized in district offices and headquarters by the officers of the NSS units in the District Offices and in the DES Headquarters. Then data entry, data validation and table generation are done with the software provided by NSSO. On the basis of estimates derived from state sample data, the report is prepared.
NSS started its 71st round on 1st January 2014. The survey will continue up to 30th June 2014. The 71st round (January 2014 - June 2014) of NSS is earmarked for surveys on social consumption - health and education of households. In this round, a total of 320 samples (160 – Rural & 160 Urban) will be surveyed in Kerala. The last survey on health was conducted in 60th round of NSS (January 2004 - June 2004) and the same on education was conducted in 64th round of NSS (July 2007 - June 2008).
Objective of 71st Round Survey
The Survey on 'Social Consumption-Health' has been designed to collect information relevant to the determination of the prevalence rate of morbidity among various age-sex groups. The survey will collect information on the extent of use of health services provided by the Government and the expenditure incurred on treatment received from public and private sectors. The survey will ascertain the extent of use of private and public hospitals for childbirth, the cost incurred, and the extent of receipt of pre-natal and post natal care by woman who undergo childbirth. A new feature is that the extent of use of AYUSH and cost of treatment will be studied for the first time from this survey.
The objectives of the 'Social Consumption Education' survey is to collect information on participation of persons aged 5-29 years in the education system, private expenditure incurred on education, examining the extent of educational wastage and their causes and IT literacy of persons aged 14 years and above.
The evaluation wing was started in 1973. Evaluation Division conducts annual Evaluation Study of the schemes implemented by the Soil Conservation Department in all districts.
Government implimenting various Soil Conservation measures through the Soil Conservation Department and Local bodies etc. for Maintaining the fertility and moisture content of the surface soil. The scheme implimented and completed before five years are taken up for study. So that full benefits of the Scheme could be evaluated and assessed.
The main objectives of the evaluation study are
(1) To assess the benefits of the programme particularly in relation to the cultivation of seasonal and perennials crops
(2) To throw light on various aspects like cost benefit analysis, Production Potential etc.
(3) To estimate the extent of additional area brought under Cultivation consequent on the implimentation of the programme.
(4) To study the effects of the work carried out by the Soil Conservation Department in this direction.
PLANNING CO-ORDINATION AND PUBLICATION OF STATISTICS
The planning unit is responsible for the preparation of Annual Plan and five-year plans of the department and reviewing the progress of implementation of these schemes.
Publication division is responsible for printing and supply of reports prepared by various divisions of the Directorate and also the schedules and instructions required for the various surveys. Preparation of general publications is one of the main functions of this division. There is small RISO Printing Press working in the Department.
This division co-ordinates the LA Interpellation, matter for subject committee of the legislature etc. Co-ordination meeting of the heads of statistical units functioning in other Department is also convened regularly once in a year.
The Vital Statistics unit of this Department continued to engage in the collection, compilation, tabulation and analysis of data on births and deaths for publication of Vital Statistics of the State. The data generated through civil registration under the Registration of Births and Death Act, 1969 are collected. The Chief Registrar of Births and Deaths is the Director of Panchayat s and Additional Chief Registrar of Birth and death is Additional Director of this Department.. The District Panchyat officers are the District Registrars. The commissioners of Municipalities and Corporations are empowered with powers of the District Registrars. In Corporations Health Officers are appointed as Local Registrars and in Minicipalities and Guruvayoor Township, the senior most Health Inspectors are the Local Registrars. In the rural area the Executive Officers of the Panchayats function as the Local Registrars for the purpose of civil registration. The Local Registrars furnish the details of births and deaths in the prescribed forms regularly to the Directorate of Economics and Statistics where further processing of the data on vital events (births and deaths) is carried out.
Survey on Census of death (rural) survey on medical certification of cause of death and sport check survey are also conducted by this Division
The objective of the scheme is to collect quick and reliable data for the estimation of vital rates. This scheme has been found necessary because of the incompleteness of the civil registration data. In Kerala the survey in the rural sector is being conducted by the Directorate of Economics and Statistics and in urban sector by the Census Department of Government of India.
In Kerala the survey is being conducted in 150 selected rural samples.
Department of Economics and Statistics is the nodal agency for the collection and compilation of price data in the state. The collection of Price Statistics is one of the major item of work of the Department. The importance and utility of the information pertaining to the price movements affect all sectors of the economy. Both the scope and coverage of the price collection has undergone many changes and it is the duty of the department to produce qualitative data on prices.
Price Division of the department collects various types of price data at Taluk and District level. After scrutiny and compilation, they are forwarded to the Central and State Governments and to other agencies for the purposes of Policy decision, Planning, Research and to watch daily price movements. The Department is also computing various price Indices.Publication:
- The book” price statistics” comprising all the data on prices up to 2010 published.
- Price Bulletin completed upto June 2012
- Price Trend completed upto February 2010.
FAMILY BUDGET SURVEY
State Government have accorded sanction for the shift of the base year for preparation of Consumer Price Index from 1970 = 100 to 1998-99 = 100. Accordingly Government have constituted a "Committee of Direction" having members from Industrial workers and Officials. On the basis of the direction given by the committee, this department conducted a Family Budget Survey in selected centers spread over in the state collecting data from selected families. The report has been submitted to Government and State Government has accepted the report. Subsequently the linking factor to link the new series to old series has been worked out and Government was pleased to accord sanction to publish the new series with 1998-99 base vide GO (MS) No.7/2002/Plg, Dated 21-03-2002.
Now this Department is publishing the Consumer Price Indices with new base year w.e.f October 2000. The latest index numbers are appended separately.
SURVEYS AND STUDIES
The Survey Design Division of the Department designs, conduct surveys and prepare reports of various subjects with topical importance suggested by the Government, Departments, and other agencies. This unit also takes up the surveys suggested by the Central Statistical Organisation.
The Final Report of Survey on 'Suicide of Farmers' in Kerala is published.
The Final Report of 'Price spread analysis study on coconut and banana' in Thiruvananthapuram district is published.
The Final Report of 'Non-Profit Institutions in Kerala' 1st phase and Second phase published.
Field work of Survey on 'Migrants and Returnees of Kerala-2010' completed.
Preliminary work of Survey on Non availability of Laobourers in Construction and Agricultural sectors of Kerala is started.
The State Income division has been computing estimates of State Domestics Product from 1955 onwards, according to the standard methodology issued by the Central Statistical Organization. The work relating to the economic classification of State expenditure including Government undertakings and local bodies and preparation of standard tables on regional accounts and capital formation are also undertaken from 1978 onwards.
This Department has a well-built Computer division. All the District Offices also has computer units.
Most of the schedules collected through various sources are being processed in this Division/Unit.
There is no networking between the Directorate and the District Offices, which affects the data transfer. The need of the hour is the regular/timely upgradation of the hardware and softwares. Similarly regular refresher courses for the computer personnel are also required. The softwares (data entry, validation and processing) required for us are prepared indigenously by our own staff. Some are PGDCAs and some are undergoing MCA. They have taken the degree by their own. The data entry work of main surveys like Economic Census, Agricultural Census, etc. was successfully undertaken by this Department.
This department has a Library having 6000 old books, periodicals and journals. Main difficulty is that of space. An information counter is functioning in the department to cater the needs of data users, researchers etc.
This division consists of Establishment, Accounts, Store Purchase, Budget, Tapals and Fair copy sections.